A type of attack on a decentralized network where a group gains control of the majority of nodes. This would allow them to defraud the blockchain by reversing transactions and double spending ether and other tokens.
A place where cryptocurrency can be sent to and from, in the form of a string of letters and numbers.
If data cannot be accessed, then it cannot be infected or corrupted — this is the concept of an air gap
An attestation ledger is an account book designed to provide evidence of individual transactions. It is generally used to “attest” that a financial transaction took place, or to prove authenticity of transactions or products.
An Eth2 upgrade that will become the coordinator for the Ethereum network. It introduces proof-of-stake and validators to Ethereum. It will eventually be merged with Mainnet.
A single section of discrete data. Blocks typically comprise a list of transactions or actions to be performed when processing the data in the block.
In the blockchain industry, the process by which distinct sections of a network determine a single truth. Blockchain networks use consensus algorithms to establish agreement regarding which blocks are to be added to the chain and which nodes are valid.
Digitally distributed and traded currencies for which proof of ownership is established via cryptographic methods. For example, Ether cannot be transferred from an account without having control of the private key that is associated with that account.
The movement of data, actions, and other interests away from a single actor in favor of distribution amongst all actors
Directed acyclic graph (DAG)
A directed graph structure (e.g., flow chart) that has no recursive routes (i.e., traversing the graph will never go twice through the same route or branch). In the blockchain industry, DAGs are used to create links between blocks, transactions, and data storage structures.
Ethereum is a decentralized Blockchain 2.0 chain. It was the first major smart contract platform and has widespread support from Fortune 500 companies through the Ethereum Enterprise Alliance (EEA). Ethereum currently uses a Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus algorithm, but future changes to the protocol will update it to a more scalable algorithm, most likely based on Proof-of-Stake (PoS).
A service for trading cryptocurrency tokens for other tokens or fiat.
In the blockchain industry, a unique network created using the same protocol or consensus as a previously existing network. Forks can contain the original network’s state or instantiate their own state.
In the blockchain industry, a measure of the computational difficulty required to process a smart contract function. More complex functions use more gas.
The groups of blocks which the blockchain miners are charged with must be validated by the system. To do this, the miners must find a password or digital fingerprint that identifies them. This password is called a hash. It is unique, unrepeatable and cannot be modified. Besides, each time a new hash is discovered, it is distributed to the rest of the nodes in the network, so that they are always sychronized.
ICOs, or Initial Coin Offerings, are a form of company financing. The peculiarity is that the companies offer tokens instead of shares and the shareholders pay with digital coins, through blockchain.
The largest blockchain network a specific protocol runs, or the most valuable chain as decided by the community.
A miner is an actor in a blockchain network that has the ability to create and submit new blocks to the chain. Which miner is allowed to produce a specific block may be predetermined, or miners may simultaneously compete to add the next block to the chain.
The nodes are the computers that form part of the blockchain network. They are charged with storing and distributing, in real time, the updated copies of the transactions that are carried out. Each time a new block is generated and added to the general ledger, a copy is also added to all the nodes in the network. All the miners are nodes, but not all the nodes are miners.
One part of a public/private key pair used for asymmetric encryption and decryption.
A Blockchain 1.0 chain that seeks to connect payment providers and banks.
In the blockchain industry, the ability of a network to continue functioning when the number of actors increases to infinity.
A wallet software for use with Ethereum, EOS, and Bitcoin.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
A federal government body in the United States of America that is responsible for the oversight and regulation of investments. The nature of some cryptocurrencies designates them as a security under current laws, and they must be registered with the SEC to be legally used in the United States.
Are units of value that can be acquired through blockchain, and are also used to acquire goods and services.
A singular input into a blockchain that affects some change in the blockchain’s data.
A file or software that contains the private keys for interacting with a Private Key Infrastructure (PKI).